Good day, dear colleagues! My name is Aleksandr Kapitonov.
And I’m from St. Petersburg, Russia – ITMO University and
my topic is related with the industry 4.0 and
a technical topic,
in my sense.
Because I will present some
cases where we use the blockchain
of a real life case.
OK, let’s go.
Right now we are facing with the problem that the
main part of the
service provider who provides the protocol of the communication between the different systems,
between the parts of the automated control system for
equipment additional to what is placed in the factory inside.
a centralized provider
where you should sell the transaction inside and
serves it, makes the calculation and gives you an answer or addressing your transaction to another one.
And we started thinking how
that problem when the old transaction collected into one point because in that case you have the
single point of failure. It’s not a good
you should provide the maximum security for that point and
sometimes it has very high cost.
And we started to learn the
materials of research of our colleagues. First one it was Victor Glushkov.
one of the pioneers of the economical cybernetics.
And he proposed to create the global
automated system for controlling the economy inside the country and it was in the middle of the
And the second one is Roland Coase
and his idea about
institutional economy and
his work “The Nature of the Firm”. Because in that work he explained that the
market can find the point for the company where
that company will be useful for the market and
it will have some optimal position.
And the size of that
company will be
bordered by market and market controls the size of the companies, which should be
on the market.
And the thought that
sometimes autonomous systems or cyber-physical systems – it is
connection of the different elements, actuators, sensors and control system and
communication protocol inside. It looks like a usual company, but it’s
That’s why we decide to apply that ideas
to the real
cases with the autonomous system and cyber-physical systems.
And what have we got.
We have organized
the communication between different cyber-physical systems for the Ethereum blockchain with the smart contracts usage.
Whereas smart contracts it’s like a description of the business process
inside the blockchain.
And the cyber physical systems, and autonomous systems… It’s like
autonomous agents which communicate to each other with the coins and
use the market relations to exchange the information and try to find the
optimal position in the market.
What technologies we use
for that cases? First it’s mix OS
one of the
implementation of the open-source
operation system. And
you can tune this system for the separate autonomous
agent like cyber-physical system with description of all
What it should have for example: what sensors, what controllers,
what actuators should be and what drivers should be used for that cyber-physical system.
The next one it’s a robot operating system. It’s one of the
frameworks to control the cyber physical
system inside with the
implementation of the control laws and drivers of the
driver realization for the actuators and sensors.
And the last one it’s Ethereum blockchain with the smart contracts what we used for organizing the communication between
separate system when it
separate autonomous agents, which can provide the open service or
Because right now, you know,
several cases with the lights out factories. For example, in China. And right now lights out factory
can be like a separate cyber physical system, which can
communicate with other
lights-out factories through the Ethereum blockchain with our software.
Few words about the network ecosystem: how we organize the communication and
what we put in the site
outside of the blockchain and what information we settle in the blockchain?
Of course, the settling information inside blockchain
And if you want to publish your asking bids, it’s not suitable to
put all asking bids in the blockchain.
That’s why for
asking bids we’re using the
light channel – light communication channel . It’s IPFS.
or we hope of
releasing Whisper in the Ethereum blockchain, and I think we will shift to Whisper.
But right now it’s publisher subscriber in the
IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) application.
The cyber physical system in that case
publisIishing the bids: I can provide your service, I can provide your product.
And in these bids description of the service of product with the cost,
parameters, the time and
information about addresses. That’s all.
And users asked
information in the same way.
I want to get that service for that price. Do you agree with me or not? And when we find
asking bids which equal,
we match them and settle in the blockchain.
After that the blockchain creates
the smart contract with the liabilities of each side and
the user’s money is kept in that smart contract address.
the cyber physical system starts to
complete the task to provide the service or product.
And after completing the task
the cyber physical system is publishing the log file of the work.
In the robot operating system, there is technology
It’s named ROS bag file. And ROS bag file keeps the structure of the system and keeps the information
about the system.
That’s it. After that step we start
the checking of
that file: that
was the real work or not? And in this step we are
asking the observing network. It can be additional
autonomous agent or,
I don’t know, network of the cameras, network of the sensors.
Independent sensors, of course, not the ones inside the
cyber physical system, but the ones making the work.
And if the observing network has given the approvement of the work: it is OK – we finalize the
liability contract, smart contract and send the money to cyber physical system. And that’s all.
This is the first case of what we are working on.
It is a
ducky town project
autonomous cars in the small city
are driving throughout. And here we realize how to
make the autonomous taxi service with the blockchain and
As you can see,
the car gets
the ask to get to this special point in the town and
starts moving through the pass
from the start point to the
mentioned by the user.
in each step cars record the state of the system.
And after finishing the work it is publishing the results.
In the InterPlanetary File System (IPFS).
And in this case, we realize the observer network with the prism algorithm. It’s a probability model checker
to get which matches the features inside the file and
try to compare it with the initial model.
And in that case that’s OK. The work is done.
This is the main
scheme for that case. You know, autonomous agents, smart contract and
customers at the client’s end and
the validator is a prism algorithm probabilistic model checker.
Okay, in the next case…
It’s a case with the
for measuring the state of the environment.
The client is asking:
I want to get the parameters of the air pollution in that point, in that
And autonomous vehicle, autonomous flying vehicle starts to make the work and goes into
that point. And, as you can see, in the log file, it keeps
the parameters of the environment: like CO2 pollution and all
the dust and other parameters.
This is the second case of
organize the autonomous service
with our technologies.
Okay, these are the structures here. And the last one – it’s industry 4.0 case:
demonstrate how the work at autonomous markets and
autonomous factories is done. How they are playing on that markets.
And, as you can see,
there are four markets and
the investors put the money on
each market as they want.
And the robots start to work, providing the product on each market,
depending on the size of the money on each market.
That’s the main idea.
Okay. Thank you for your attention!
Ready to answer your questions. Thank you!
How do we
It’s something like a ranking system. It should be.
You know, if the validator is cheating, nobody wants to use that
validation. That’s the main idea. But mainly the validators are
autonomous cyber physical systems and, you know, the robots don’t lie.
One of the points.
Okay. Thanks for your attention! If you have any questions, you can come to me and ask them. Thank you!